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    AgricultureSituated on the North China Plain, Shangqiu is part of a traditionally agricultural region. The fertile soil and convenient irrigation facilities greatly help the production of crops and other plants. As of 2005, there are about 719,864 hectare planted. The most important agricultural products are wheat, maize, cotton, sesame, vegetables, fruit, tobacco, and livestock. In 2002, it produced about 4.5 million tons of crops, 200 thousand tons of cotton, 1.1 million tons of fruits, and 550 thousand tons of livestock.IndustryCompared with the agriculture, the industry of Shangqiu is relatively less developed. However, since the 1990s, it has experienced rapid growth. The food producing and packing company, Kedi group, has already been the number one exporter of frozen vegetables in the country. The large reserves of coal in Shangqiu (the Yongcheng-Xiayi coal mine is estimated to have a total reserves of 10 billion tons) also boosts up the energy industry, such as electricity generation and aluminium electrolysis.


    According to the 2010 Census, Shangqiu has a population of 7,362,472. That is 390,528 inhabitants less than in 2000 (the population shrank 5.04% in ten years).AdministrationThe prefecture-level city of Shangqiu administers 2 districts, 1 county-level city and 6 counties. The information here presented uses the metric system and data from 2010 National Population Census.MapLiangyuanSuiyangMinquanCountySuiCountyNinglingCountyZhechengCountyYuchengCountyXiayiCountyYongcheng(city)English NameSimplified ChineseHanyu PinyinArea (km²)Population(2010)Density (/km²)Liangyuan District梁园区Liángyuán Qū673787,9311,171Suiyang District睢阳区Suīyáng Qū913748,356820Yongcheng City永城市Yǒngchéng Shì2,0681,240,296600Minquan County民权县Mínquán Xiàn1,222703,379576Sui County睢县Suī Xiàn920711,088773Ningling County宁陵县Nínglíng Xiàn786523,367666Zhecheng County柘城县Zhèchéng Xiàn1,048778,107742Yucheng County虞城县Yúchéng Xiàn1,558954,720613Xiayi County夏邑县Xiàyì Xiàn1,470915,228623


    The history of Shangqiu is closely related to the very beginning of Chinese history. Tradition dates back to the Three August Ones and Five Emperors periods (c. 25th century BC), when the semi-legendary Emperors Shennong, Zhuanxu and Ku were said to be living in the present Shangqiu area. The son of Emperor Ku, Qi (契), who helped Yu the Great to control floods, was enfeoffed the area of Shang (which is the current day Shangqiu area), who also became the ancestor of the ancient nationality of Shang. It is said that the Shang people first started trading with neighboring countries by shipping the goods with ox wagons. Since then, people doing business are called Shang people (Shāngrén 商人, means businessman), which is still the case now, although people are not likely to know the origin of the words. Shangqiu was also reportedly one of the capitals defended by the Xia emperor Xiang, troubled by rebellions in his reign. The thirteenth generation grandson of Qi (契), Tang overthrew the ruling Xia Dynasty and founded the Shang Dynasty, with its first capital at Nanbo (南亳, currently south of Shangqiu). Around the 11th century BC, the Shang Dynasty was replaced by the Zhou Dynasty. The royal descendants of Shang Dynasty were enfeoffed the area of Shangqiu, which later became the state of Song.The city was the southern capital of the Northern Song dynasty under the name Nanjing. Shangqiu was the first in a series of temporary capitals that the Song Dynasty government moved to during their retreat from the north, when most of northern China had been conquered by the Jurchens in the Jin–Song wars. The Song court had retreated south to the city from their original capital in Kaifeng, after it was captured by the Jurchens in the Jingkang Incident of 1127. The court moved to Shangqiu because of its historical importance to Emperor Taizu of Song, the founder of the dynasty, who had previously served in the city as a military governor. The symbolism of the city was meant to secure the political legitimacy of the new Emperor Gaozong, who was crowned emperor of China in Shangqiu on June 12, 1127. The capital was again moved in 1128 to Yangzhou, and finally to Hangzhou in 1129.Under the Republic, Shangqiu was considered a key city in eastern Henan owing to its position along the Lunghai (now Longhai) Railway between the port of Haizhou on the East China Sea and Lanzhou in central China. It was known at the time as Kweiteh, Kwei-teh, or Kuei-te (Chinese: t 歸德, s 归德, p Guīdé) and had both a Catholic diocese and an Anglican mission, the later of which ran St Paul's Hospital. It changed hands frequently during the fighting among the Chinese warlords in 1927.

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